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Westminster Legal System in Australia

The_main_feature_of_Australian_Legal_SystemAustralia system of legislature and governance is based on a Westminster system. In essence, this as a name given to a parliamentary democracy, the very same that is used in Canada, New Zealand and Britain. There are a lot of people who are at loss of how the system operates and ask myriads of questions. Of the questions the most that is asked is concerning petitions.

What is a petition?

A petition is a written document with a list of signatures from members of the legislative assembly that can be obtained by any member of the public asking for an action to be taken by the assembly concerning a grievance. A petition must address issues that relates to the jurisdiction of the ACT assembly. Credit goes to Kooblals Lawyers Williamstown for putting together this information.


There are rules that are set out in the standing orders. These include the following:

  • A petition must be an original sheet signed by members of the ACT who support the petition.
  • The request must be written on any page that contains the signature. The signatures are required to be originally entered and not photocopied or copy pasted.
  • The petition must contain relevant and reasonable information.
  • A petition cannot originate or distributed by a member of the legislative assembly of the ACT.
  • The petition can only be written in English or accompanied with a certified translation addressing the Speaker and members of the Legislative Assembly.
  • A petitioner should forward the petition to a member and then ask them to present it to the Assembly.
  • Agreement by a member to forward the petition to the assembly doesn’t imply that the member supports the contents.


Presentations of the petition requires that the document be lodged with the Clerk by 5:00 pm through a member of the assembly. The petition is then checked by the Clerk for compliance with the rules. After this, the petition is hence presented to the Assembly upon its opening by …

Pros and Cons of Vaccination.

images (1)The subject of vaccination is one that has its fair share of controversies. Many people, both beneficiaries and those that dispense the service argue and discuss on whether it is necessary, safe or at all beneficial to have vaccines against the many diseases. At the end of the day, we can only really look at the advantages and disadvantages of this practice then leave it to the individual to have their opinions.

Vaccination is generally the introduction of a germ into the body of an individual so that the body will be immune from contracting the disease it is immunized against. This is done by infecting the body with a weakened version of the pathogen which is being immunized against. The body will naturally produce a defense mechanism to fight this intrusion. After the body has fought the threat, the anti-bodies remain in the system thus creating an immunity against a said disease.

The Pros.

  1. Most medical doctors and other healthcare professionals are positive about what has been achieved through vaccination in preventing and eradication a number of life threatening diseases. The pros are weighty enough to be considered. Here are some:
  2. Prevention of disease is one of the most important advantages of vaccination. Whether going in disease prone areas or just getting a vaccine during childhood, vaccination has really done much to prevent diseases like polio, whooping cough and various types of fevers.
  3. Disease eradication. Vaccination programs have been carried out extensively and have totally eradicated life threatening diseases from the human race. It is more than the vaccinated protecting the unvaccinated because here, the threat is done away with completely.
  4. A lot of money has been saved since the advent and adoption of vaccination. This is money that would have otherwise been used in getting medical attention and buying medication. Other amounts would have been used in developing medicines and research that goes with it.

The cons.

  1. Susceptibility of new born babies in the event mothers have used

Modern Hacker Threats.

wp-content-uploads-2012-02-online-hacking-threat-more-pervasive-than-everThe revolution in the ICT industry has do much good in how we handle business and even communicate. The computer, tablet and mobile phone have become a window to the globe if not the universe. In all this blessing, there is someone who has malicious intent to make sure that they internet is not as safe as anyone would want it to be. I am not talking about the online pervert who is geared towards corrupting morals. It is the hacker I am talking about here. With cloud computing becoming the trend in the ICT arena, the threat is even bigger.

There are many threat methods that hackers use to pose threats to internet users. Three major categories however are:

  • Buggy programs.
  • Unsafe programs.
  • Misconfigured programs.

Buggy programs.

Buggy programs are the kind of programs that are designed and properly configured but have flaws in the implementation and coding aspects. This is what gives leeway for the hacker to remotely exploit your system. There are two ways to this; parsing errors and buffer overflows.

Buffer overflows are errors in programing where the program writer creates a buffer to store remote input data without checking on the length to see whether it fits well. A hacker can then send more data to the buffer which will include malicious executable data that gives the hacker access to your machine. Parsing errors on the other hand occur when the contents of remote input data aren’t properly checked. This happens when a web server allows a hacker to view html files that are not allowed to be viewed. Here, the hacker gets access to information like usernames and passwords which are then used maliciously.

Unsafe programs.

These are the kind of programs that are generally unsafe for use in the internet due to their design. These are easily exploited by hackers as they either send the username and passwords unencrypted over the internet or use IP addresses of users for verification. This information …

Technology and Economic Growth

Tech2Technology is inarguably one of the fastest growing industries both locally and in the global economic arena. With many counties adopting policies and building frameworks that will enable then remain competent and relevant, growth in this industry has yet to reach unimagined limits. Technology, especially information and communications technology, has brought a shift to the economy with the benefits and positive effects being seen in all levels. Lives are changing and better standards of living and trade are being realized. The common benefits are:

Job creation.

The technology sector, more so ICT is one of the biggest direct job creation avenue. By 2020, there is an expected growth of computer and information technology jobs by 22.5%, which is well over 700,000 jobs. For every job created in the technology industry, there are additional 6-7 jobs created elsewhere. This will definitely come with increased salaries and a wider range of products and services.

Contribution to GDP growth.

Technology has a huge contribution on the growth of the Gross Domestic Product in various countries. If we take a look at ICT for instance, an increase of 10% in penetration of broadband translates to a 1.5% increased GDP growth in emerging markets. Globally, this increase in connectivity, especially in the 3G platform has paved way for a 0.57% GDP growth. This growth has been spurned by growth in the SME and e-commerce.

Emergence of new industries and services.

Technology has seen the rise of more products and services in trade. As a matter of fact, more products and services have become more and more digitalized and available in the internet. The inception of cloud computing is one of the hall marks of modernization. Emergence of the App industry for instance is purely technology based and has been made possible by the Information Communication Technology. From banking to conferencing, from ordering for services to mobile money transfers like M-Pesa in Kenya, there are numerous way in which technology has seen the birth of products …